群聊新闻收发,语法比较手册

图片 1

发送 poll包

 

public static void Login_PostPoll()
{
try
{
string url = "";
string dat = "{"ptwebqq":"#{ptwebqq}","clientid":53999199,"psessionid":"#{psessionid}","key":""}";
dat = dat.Replace("#{ptwebqq}", Login_ptwebqq).Replace("#{psessionid}", Login_Psessionid);
dat = "r=" HttpUtility.UrlEncode(dat);
HTTP.Post_Async_Action action = Message_Get;
HTTP.Post_Async(url, dat, action);
}
catch (Exception) { Login_PostPoll(); }
}
#endregion
#region 选择到音讯的回调函数
/// <summary>
/// 接纳到新闻的回调函数
/// </summary>
/// <param name="data">接纳到的数量(json)</param>
private static bool Running = true;
public static void Message_Get(string data)
{
Task.Run(() => Login_PostPoll());
if (Running)
Task.Run(() => Message_Process(data));//这几个是管理收到音讯的其它三个艺术具体管理在源码
}

VB.NET

Program Structure

C#

public static void Login_GetPHV()
{
string urldata = "{"ptwebqq":"#{ptwebqq}","clientid":53999199,"psessionid":"","status":"online"}".Replace("#{ptwebqq}", Login_ptwebqq);
urldata = "r=" HttpUtility.UrlEncode(urldata);
string dat = HTTP.Post("", urldata, "");

以上正是poll包的管理以致 收到的新闻管理

Imports System

Login_Psessionid = dat.Replace(":", ",").Replace("{", "").Replace("}", "").Replace(""", "").Split(',')[10];
Login_QQ = dat.Replace(":", ",").Replace("{", "").Replace("}", "").Replace(""", "").Split(',')[14];//登录QQ
//Login_Vfwebqq = dat.Replace(":", ",").Replace("{", "").Replace("}", "").Replace(""", "").Split(',')[18];
Login_Hash = Hash2(Login_QQ, Login_ptwebqq);// 在这里个js 获得丰富hash的值 JS里面包车型地铁法门名是Hash2 里面是16进制 须求改造来C#的档案的次序。第一个参数是心驰神往QQ第四个ptwebqq
//风姿罗曼蒂克初叶拿地点的cookie 里面包车型的士Vfwebqq,是极其的,再央浼二遍,得到收获好朋友新闻的vfwebqq
string urlvfwebqq = "", Login_ptwebqq).Replace("#{t}", TimeStamp());
string datVfwebqq = HTTP.Get(urlvfwebqq, "");
Login_Vfwebqq = datVfwebqq.Split('"')[7];
SendOnlog(Login_QQ "/r/n" Login_Vfwebqq "/r/n" Login_Psessionid

接下去是 发送的 

Namespace Hello
   Class HelloWorld
      Overloads Shared Sub Main(ByVal args() As String)
         Dim name As String = "VB.NET"

  • "/r/n" Login_Hash);
    }

图片 2

         'See if an argument was passed from the command line
          If args.Length = 1 Then name = args(0)

上边就可以获得 Login_ptwebqq  Login_Psessionid ,Login_Hash 这个hash  需要

 

          Console.WriteLine("Hello, " & name & "!")
      End Sub
   End Class
End Namespace

在这里个js 得到特别hash的值 JS里面包车型客车办法名是Hash2 里面是16进制 要求转移成C# 也得以直接  调用那几个JS。第八个参数是Login_QQ 第二个Login_ptwebqq  

 上边是发送的连天以至 发送后回来的 poll包音讯。代码如下 

using System;

public static string Hash2(string uin, string ptvfwebqq)
{
int[] ptbIndex = new int[4];
long QQ_Long = long.Parse(uin);
for (int i = 0; i < ptvfwebqq.Length; i )
{
ptbIndex[i % 4] ^= ptvfwebqq.ToCharArray()[i];
}
string[] salt = { "EC", "OK" };
long[] uinByte = new long[4];
uinByte[0] = QQ_Long >> 24 & 255 ^ salt[0].ToCharArray()[0];
uinByte[1] = QQ_Long >> 16 & 255 ^ salt[0].ToCharArray()[1];
uinByte[2] = QQ_Long >> 8 & 255 ^ salt[1].ToCharArray()[0];
uinByte[3] = QQ_Long & 255 ^ salt[1].ToCharArray()[1];

/// <summary>
///
/// </summary>
/// <param name="type">私聊0 群聊1 讨论组2</param>
/// <param name="uin">uin</param>
/// <param name="messageToSend">消息</param>
/// <param name="auto"></param>
/// <returns></returns>
public static bool Login_Postsend_buddy_msg(int type, string uin, string messageToSend)
{
if (messageToSend.Equals("") || uin.Equals(""))
return false;
string[] tmp = messageToSend.Split("{}".ToCharArray());
messageToSend = "";
for (int i = 0; i < tmp.Length; i )
if (!tmp[i].Trim().StartsWith("..[face") || !tmp[i].Trim().EndsWith("].."))
messageToSend = "\"" tmp[i] "\",";
else
messageToSend = tmp[i].Replace("..[face", "[\"face\",").Replace("]..", "],");
messageToSend = messageToSend.Remove(messageToSend.LastIndexOf(','));
messageToSend = messageToSend.Replace("rn", "n").Replace("nr", "n").Replace("r", "n").Replace("n", Environment.NewLine);
try
{
string to_groupuin_did, url;
switch (type)
{
case 0:
to_groupuin_did = "to";
url = "";
break;
case 1:
to_groupuin_did = "group_uin";
url = "";
break;
case 2:
to_groupuin_did = "did";
url = "";
break;
default:
return false;
}
string postData = "{"#{type}":#{id},"content":"[#{msg},[\"font\",{\"name\":\"繁体\",\"size\":10,\"style\":[0,0,0],\"color\":\"000000\"}]]","face":#{face},"clientid":53999199,"msg_id":#{msg_id},"psessionid":"#{psessionid}"}";
postData = "r=" HttpUtility.UrlEncode(postData.Replace("#{type}", to_groupuin_did).Replace("#{id}", uin).Replace("#{msg}", messageToSend).Replace("#{face}", SelfInfo.face.ToString()).Replace("#{msg_id}", rand.Next(10000000, 99999999).ToString()).Replace("#{psessionid}", Login_Psessionid));

namespace Hello {
   public class HelloWorld {
      public static void Main(string[] args) {
         string name = "C#";

long[] result = new long[8];

string dat = HTTP.Post(url, postData, "");
return dat.Equals("{"errCode":0,"msg":"send ok"}");
}
catch (Exception)
{
return false;
}
}

         // See if an argument was passed from the command line
         if (args.Length == 1)
            name = args[0];

for (int i = 0; i < 8; i )
{
result[i] = i % 2 == 0 ? ptbIndex[i >> 1] : uinByte[i >> 1];
}

 

         Console.WriteLine("Hello, " name "!");
      }
   }
}

string[] hex = { "0", "1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9", "A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F" };
string buf = "";

那后生可畏讲费了众多时刻,中间又去查了材料。特别是拍卖回来的 包的json ,不领悟怎么格式化,只可以替换出来,得到想要的多少。

VB.NET

Comments

C#

for (int i= 0; i < result.Length; i )
{
buf = hex[(int)((result[i] >> 4) & 15)];
buf = hex[(int)(result[i] & 15)];
}
return buf;
}

 

' Single line only
*REM** Single line only ''' <summary>XML comments</summary>*

 

到明天了却,整个新手smart qq http 合同的教程 已经得以说成功了,因为那几个左券的成效十一分纯净,何况非常多都已被TX去掉的,就如获取好友的 真实QQ也早便是报错的。接下来即可做图形界面,还恐怕有大器晚成对职业了(qq机器人自动苏醒等)

// Single line
/
Multiple
    line  */
/// <summary>XML comments on single line</summary>
/** <summary>XML comments on multiple lines</summary> */*

以上便是C# 获取smart qq  的vfwebqq ,psessionid,hash 

 

VB.NET

Data Types

C#

Value Types
Boolean
Byte, SByte
Char
Short, UShort, Integer, UInteger, Long, ULong
Single, Double
Decimal
Date   (alias of System.DateTime)

Reference Types
Object
String

Initializing
Dim correct As Boolean = True
Dim b As Byte = &H2A   'hex or &O52 for octal
Dim person As Object = Nothing
Dim name As String = "Dwight"
Dim grade As Char = "B"c
Dim today As Date = #12/31/2007 12:15:00 PM#
Dim amount As Decimal = 35.99@
Dim gpa As Single = 2.9!
Dim pi As Double = 3.14159265
Dim lTotal As Long = 123456L
Dim sTotal As Short = 123S
Dim usTotal As UShort = 123US
Dim uiTotal As UInteger = 123UI
Dim ulTotal As ULong = 123UL

Implicitly Typed Local Variables
Dim s = "Hello!"
Dim nums = New Integer() {1, 2, 3}
Dim hero = New SuperHero With {.Name = "Batman"}

Type Information
Dim x As Integer
Console.WriteLine(x.GetType())          ' Prints System.Int32
Console.WriteLine(GetType(Integer))   ' Prints System.Int32
Console.WriteLine(TypeName(x))        ' Prints Integer

Dim c as New Circle
If TypeOf c Is Shape Then _
    Console.WriteLine("c is a Shape")

Type Conversion / Casting
Dim d As Single = 3.5
Dim i As Integer = CType(d, Integer)   ' set to 4 (Banker's rounding)
i = CInt(d)  ' same result as CType
i = Int(d)    ' set to 3 (Int function truncates the decimal)

Dim o As Object = 2
i = DirectCast(o, Integer)   ' Throws InvalidCastException if type cast fails

Dim s As New Shape
Dim c As Circle = TryCast(s, Circle)   ' Returns Nothing if type cast fails

Value Types
bool
byte, sbyte
char
short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong
float, double
decimal
DateTime   (not a built-in C# type)

Reference Types
object
string

Initializing
bool correct = true;
byte b = 0x2A;   // hex
object person = null;
string name = "Dwight";
char grade = 'B';
DateTime today = DateTime.Parse("12/31/2007 12:15:00");
decimal amount = 35.99m;
float gpa = 2.9f;
double pi = 3.14159265;
long lTotal = 123456L;
short sTotal = 123;
ushort usTotal = 123;
uint uiTotal = 123;
ulong ulTotal = 123;

Implicitly Typed Local Variables
var s = "Hello!";
var nums = new int[] { 1, 2, 3 };
var hero = new SuperHero() { Name = "Batman" };

Type Information
int x;
Console.WriteLine(x.GetType());              // Prints System.Int32
Console.WriteLine(typeof(int));               // Prints System.Int32
Console.WriteLine(x.GetType().Name);   // prints Int32

Circle c = new Circle();
if (c is Shape)
    Console.WriteLine("c is a Shape");

Type Conversion / Casting
float d = 3.5f;
i = Convert.ToInt32(d);     // Set to 4 (rounds)
int i = (int)d;     // set to 3 (truncates decimal)

object o = 2;
int i = (int)o;   // Throws InvalidCastException if type cast fails

Shape s = new Shape();
Circle c = s as Circle;   // Returns null if type cast fails

VB.NET

Constants

C#

Const MAX_STUDENTS As Integer = 25

' Can set to a const or var; may be initialized in a constructor
ReadOnly MIN_DIAMETER As Single = 4.93

const int MAX_STUDENTS = 25;

// Can set to a const or var; may be initialized in a constructor
readonly float MIN_DIAMETER = 4.93f;

VB.NET

Enumerations

C#

Enum Action
  Start 
  [Stop]   ' Stop is a reserved word
  Rewind
  Forward
End Enum

Enum Status
  Flunk = 50
  Pass = 70
  Excel = 90
End Enum
Dim a As Action = Action.Stop
If a <> Action.Start Then _
   Console.WriteLine(a.ToString & " is " & a)     ' Prints "Stop is 1"

Console.WriteLine(Status.Pass)     ' Prints 70
Console.WriteLine(Status.Pass.ToString())     ' Prints Pass

enum Action {Start, Stop, Rewind, Forward};
enum Status {Flunk = 50, Pass = 70, Excel = 90};

Action a = Action.Stop;
if (a != Action.Start)
  Console.WriteLine(a " is " (int) a);    // Prints "Stop is 1"

Console.WriteLine((int) Status.Pass);    // Prints 70
Console.WriteLine(Status.Pass);      // Prints Pass

VB.NET

Operators

C#

Comparison
=  <  >  <=  >=  <>

Arithmetic
  -  *  /
Mod
  (integer division)
(raise to a power)

Assignment
=  =  -=  *=  /=  =  ^=  <<=  >>=  &=

Bitwise
And   Or   Xor   Not   <<   >>

Logical
AndAlso   OrElse   And   Or   Xor   Not

Note: AndAlso and OrElse perform short-circuit logical evaluations

String Concatenation
&

Comparison
==  <  >  <=  >=  !=

Arithmetic
  -  *  /
(mod)
(integer division if both operands are ints)
Math.Pow(x, y)

Assignment
=  =  -=  *=  /=   %=  &=  |=  ^=  <<=  >>=    --

Bitwise
&   |   ^   ~   <<   >>

Logical
&&   ||   &   |   ^   !

Note: && and || perform short-circuit logical evaluations

String Concatenation

VB.NET

Choices

C#

' Ternary/Conditional operator (Iff evaluates 2nd and 3rd expressions)
greeting = If(age < 20, "What's up?", "Hello")

' One line doesn't require "End If"
If age < 20 Then greeting = "What's up?"
If age < 20 Then greeting = "What's up?" Else greeting = "Hello"

' Use : to put two commands on same line
If x <> 100 AndAlso y < 5 Then x *= 5 : y *= 2  

' Preferred
If x <> 100 AndAlso y < 5 Then
  x *= 5
  y *= 2
End If

' To break up any long single line use _
If whenYouHaveAReally < longLine And _
  itNeedsToBeBrokenInto2 > Lines Then _
  UseTheUnderscore(charToBreakItUp)

'**If x > 5 Then
  x *= y
ElseIf x = 5 OrElse y Mod 2 = 0 Then
  x = y
ElseIf x < 10 Then
  x -= y
Else
  x /= y
End If**

Select Case color   ' Must be a primitive data type
  Case "pink", "red"
    r = 1
  Case "blue"
    b = 1
  Case "green"
    g = 1
  Case Else
    other = 1
End Select

// Ternary/Conditional operator
greeting = age < 20 ? "What's up?" : "Hello";

if (age < 20)
  greeting = "What's up?";
else
  greeting = "Hello";

// Multiple statements must be enclosed in {}
if (x != 100 && y < 5) {   
  x *= 5;
  y *= 2;
}

 

No need for _ or : since ; is used to terminate each statement.


if
(x > 5)
  x *= y;
else if (x == 5 || y % 2 == 0)
  x = y;
else if (x < 10)
  x -= y;
else
  x /= y;

// Every case must end with break or goto case
switch (color) {                          // Must be integer or string
  case "pink":
  case "red":    r ;    break;
  case "blue":   b ;   break;   case "green": g ;   break;   default:    other ;   break;       // break necessary on default
}

VB.NET

Loops

C#

Pre-test Loops:

While c < 10
  c = 1
End While

Do Until c = 10 
  c  = 1
Loop

Do While c < 10
  c = 1
Loop

For c = 2 To 10 Step 2
  Console.WriteLine(c)
Next

  • Post-test Loops:*

Do 
  c = 1
Loop While c < 10

Do 
  c = 1
Loop Until c = 10

'  Array or collection looping
Dim names As String() = {"Fred", "Sue", "Barney"}
For Each s As String In names
  Console.WriteLine(s)
Next

' Breaking out of loops
Dim i As Integer = 0
While (True)
  If (i = 5) Then Exit While
  i = 1
End While

' Continue to next iteration
For i = 0 To 4
  If i < 4 Then Continue For
  Console.WriteLine(i)   ' Only prints 4
Next

Pre-test Loops:  

// no "until" keyword
while (c < 10)
  c ;

for (c = 2; c <= 10; c = 2)
  Console.WriteLine(c);

Post-test Loop:

do
  c ;
while (c < 10);

// Array or collection looping
string[] names = {"Fred", "Sue", "Barney"};
foreach (string s in names)
  Console.WriteLine(s);

// Breaking out of loops
int i = 0;
while (true) {
  if (i == 5)
    break;
  i ;
}

// Continue to next iteration
for (i = 0; i <= 4; i ) {
  if (i < 4)
    continue;
  Console.WriteLine(i);   // Only prints 4
}

VB.NET

Arrays

C#

Dim nums() As Integer = {1, 2, 3} 
For i As Integer = 0 To nums.Length - 1
  Console.WriteLine(nums(i))
Next

' 4 is the index of the last element, so it holds 5 elements
Dim names(4) As String
names(0) = "David"
names(5) = "Bobby"  ' Throws System.IndexOutOfRangeException

' Resize the array, keeping the existing values (Preserve is optional)
ReDim Preserve names(6)

Dim twoD(rows-1, cols-1) As Single
twoD(2, 0) = 4.5

Dim jagged()() As Integer = { _
  New Integer(4) {}, New Integer(1) {}, New Integer(2) {} }
jagged(0)(4) = 5

int[] nums = {1, 2, 3};
for (int i = 0; i < nums.Length; i )
  Console.WriteLine(nums[i]);

// 5 is the size of the array
string[] names = new string[5];
names[0] = "David";
names[5] = "Bobby";   // Throws System.IndexOutOfRangeException

// C# can't dynamically resize an array.  Just copy into new array.
string[] names2 = new string[7];
Array.Copy(names, names2, names.Length);   // or names.CopyTo(names2, 0); 

float[,] twoD = new float[rows, cols];
twoD[2,0] = 4.5f; 

int[][] jagged = new int[3][] {
  new int[5], new int[2], new int[3] };
jagged[0][4] = 5;

VB.NET

Functions

C#

' Pass by value (in, default), reference (in/out), and reference (out) 
Sub TestFunc(ByVal x As Integer, ByRef y As Integer, ByRef z As Integer)
  x = 1
  y = 1
  z = 5
End Sub

Dim a = 1, b = 1, c As Integer   ' c set to zero by default 
TestFunc(a, b, c)
Console.WriteLine("{0} {1} {2}", a, b, c)   ' 1 2 5

' Accept variable number of arguments
Function Sum(ByVal ParamArray nums As Integer()) As Integer
  Sum = 0 
  For Each i As Integer In nums
    Sum = i
  Next
End Function   ' Or use Return statement like C#

Dim total As Integer = Sum(4, 3, 2, 1)   ' returns 10

' Optional parameters must be listed last and must have a default value
Sub SayHello(ByVal name As String, Optional ByVal prefix As String = "")
  Console.WriteLine("Greetings, " & prefix & " " & name)
End Sub

SayHello("Strangelove", "Dr.")
SayHello("Mom")

// Pass by value (in, default), reference (in/out), and reference (out)
void TestFunc(int x, ref int y, out int z) {
  x ;  
  y ;
  z = 5;
}

int a = 1, b = 1, c;  // c doesn't need initializing
TestFunc(a, ref b, out c);
Console.WriteLine("{0} {1} {2}", a, b, c);  // 1 2 5

// Accept variable number of arguments
int Sum(params int[] nums) {
  int sum = 0;
  foreach (int i in nums)
    sum = i;
  return sum;
}

int total = Sum(4, 3, 2, 1);   // returns 10

/ C# 4.0 supports optional parameters. Previous versions required function overloading. */* 
void SayHello(string name, string prefix = "") {
  Console.WriteLine("Greetings, " prefix " " name);

SayHello("Strangelove", "Dr.");
SayHello("Mom");

VB.NET

Strings

C#

Special character constants (all also accessible from ControlChars class)
vbCrLf, vbCr, vbLf, vbNewLine
vbNullString
vbTab
vbBack
vbFormFeed
vbVerticalTab
""

' String concatenation (use & or )
Dim school As String = "Harding" & vbTab
school = school & "University" ' school is "Harding (tab) University"

' Chars
Dim letter As Char = school.Chars(0)   ' letter is H
letter = "Z"c                                         ' letter is Z
letter = Convert.ToChar(65)                ' letter is A
letter = Chr(65)                                 ' same thing Dim word() As Char = school.ToCharArray() ' word holds Harding

' No string literal operator
Dim msg As String = "File is c:tempx.dat"

' String comparison
Dim mascot As String = "Bisons"
If (mascot = "Bisons") Then   ' true
If (mascot.Equals("Bisons")) Then   ' true
If (mascot.ToUpper().Equals("BISONS")) Then  ' true
If (mascot.CompareTo("Bisons") = 0) Then   ' true

' String matching with Like - Regex is more powerful
If ("John 3:16" Like "Jo[Hh]? #:*") Then   'true

' Substring
s = mascot.Substring(2, 3)) ' s is "son"

' Replacement
s = mascot.Replace("sons", "nomial")) ' s is "Binomial"

' Split
Dim names As String = "Michael,Dwight,Jim,Pam"
Dim parts() As String = names.Split(",".ToCharArray())   ' One name in each slot

' Date to string
Dim dt As New DateTime(1973, 10, 12)
Dim s As String = "My birthday: " & dt.ToString("MMM dd, yyyy")   ' Oct 12, 1973

' Integer to String
Dim x As Integer = 2
Dim y As String = x.ToString()     ' y is "2"

' String to Integer
Dim x As Integer = Convert.ToInt32("-5")     ' x is -5

' Mutable string Dim buffer As New System.Text.StringBuilder("two ")
buffer.Append("three ")
buffer.Insert(0, "one ")
buffer.Replace("two", "TWO")
Console.WriteLine(buffer)         ' Prints "one TWO three"

Escape sequences
r    // carriage-return
n    // line-feed
t    // tab
\    // backslash
"    // quote

// String concatenation
string school = "Hardingt";
school = school "University";   // school is "Harding (tab) University"

// Chars
char letter = school[0];            // letter is H
letter = 'Z';                               // letter is Z
letter = Convert.ToChar(65);     // letter is A
letter = (char)65;                    // same thing
**
char[]* word = school.ToCharArray();   // word holds Harding*

// String literal
string msg = @"File is c:tempx.dat";
// same as
string msg = "File is c:\temp\x.dat";

// String comparison
string mascot = "Bisons";
if (mascot == "Bisons")    // true
if (mascot.Equals("Bisons"))   // true
if (mascot.ToUpper().Equals("BISONS"))   // true
if (mascot.CompareTo("Bisons") == 0)    // true

// String matching - No Like equivalent, use Regex

// Substring
s = mascot.Substring(2, 3))     // s is "son"

// Replacement
s = mascot.Replace("sons", "nomial"))     // s is "Binomial"

// Split
string names = "Michael,Dwight,Jim,Pam";
string[] parts = names.Split(",".ToCharArray());   // One name in each slot

// Date to string
DateTime dt = new DateTime(1973, 10, 12);
string s = dt.ToString("MMM dd, yyyy");     // Oct 12, 1973

// int to string
int x = 2;
string y = x.ToString();     // y is "2"

// string to int
int x = Convert.ToInt32("-5");     // x is -5

// Mutable string
System.Text.StringBuilder buffer = new System.Text.StringBuilder("two ");
buffer.Append("three ");
buffer.Insert(0, "one ");
buffer.Replace("two", "TWO");
Console.WriteLine(buffer);     // Prints "one TWO three"

VB.NET

Regular Expressions

C#

Imports System.Text.RegularExpressions

' Match a string pattern
Dim r As New Regex("j[aeiou]h?. d:*", RegexOptions.IgnoreCase Or _
        RegexOptions.Compiled)
If (r.Match("John 3:16").Success) Then   'true
    Console.WriteLine("Match")
End If

' Find and remember all matching patterns
Dim s As String = "My number is 305-1881, not 305-1818."
Dim r As New Regex("(d -d )")
Dim m As Match = r.Match(s)     ' Matches 305-1881 and 305-1818
While m.Success
    Console.WriteLine("Found number: " & m.Groups(1).Value & " at position " _
            & m.Groups(1).Index.ToString)
    m = m.NextMatch()
End While

' Remeber multiple parts of matched pattern
Dim r As New Regex("(dd):(dd) (am|pm)")
Dim m As Match = r.Match("We left at 03:15 pm.")
If m.Success Then
    Console.WriteLine("Hour: " & m.Groups(1).ToString)       ' 03
    Console.WriteLine("Min: " & m.Groups(2).ToString)         ' 15
    Console.WriteLine("Ending: " & m.Groups(3).ToString)   ' pm
End If

' Replace all occurrances of a pattern
Dim r As New Regex("hw ?d", RegexOptions.IgnoreCase)
Dim s As String = r.Replace("I heard this was HARD!", "easy")   ' I easy this was easy!

' Replace matched patterns
Dim s As String = Regex.Replace("123 < 456", "(d ) . (d )", "$2 > $1")   ' 456 > 123

' Split a string based on a pattern
Dim names As String = "Michael, Dwight, Jim, Pam"
Dim r As New Regex(",s*")
Dim parts() As String = r.Split(names)   ' One name in each slot

using System.Text.RegularExpressions;

// Match a string pattern
Regex r = new Regex(@"j[aeiou]h?. d:*", RegexOptions.IgnoreCase |
        RegexOptions.Compiled);
if (r.Match("John 3:16").Success)   // true
    Console.WriteLine("Match");

// Find and remember all matching patterns
string s = "My number is 305-1881, not 305-1818.";
Regex r = new Regex("(\d -\d )");
// Matches 305-1881 and 305-1818
for (Match m = r.Match(s); m.Success; m = m.NextMatch())
    Console.WriteLine("Found number: " m.Groups[1] " at position "

  •         m.Groups[1].Index);

// Remeber multiple parts of matched pattern
Regex r = new Regex("@(dd):(dd) (am|pm)");
Match m = r.Match("We left at 03:15 pm.");
if (m.Success) {
    Console.WriteLine("Hour: " m.Groups[1]);       // 03
    Console.WriteLine("Min: " m.Groups[2]);         // 15
    Console.WriteLine("Ending: " m.Groups[3]);   // pm
}

// Replace all occurrances of a pattern
Regex r = new Regex("h\w ?d", RegexOptions.IgnoreCase);
string s = r.Replace("I heard this was HARD!", "easy"));   // I easy this was easy!

// Replace matched patterns
string s = Regex.Replace("123 < 456", @"(d ) . (d )", "$2 > $1");   // 456 > 123

// Split a string based on a pattern
string names = "Michael, Dwight, Jim, Pam";
Regex r = new Regex(@",s*");
string[] parts = r.Split(names);   // One name in each slot

VB.NET

Exception Handling

C#

' Throw an exception
Dim ex As New Exception("Something is really wrong.")
Throw  ex 

' Catch an exception
Try 
  y = 0
  x = 10 / y
Catch ex As Exception When y = 0 ' Argument and When is optional
  Console.WriteLine(ex.Message)
Finally
  Beep()
End Try

' Deprecated unstructured error handling
On Error GoTo MyErrorHandler
...
MyErrorHandler: Console.WriteLine(Err.Description)

// Throw an exception
Exception up = new Exception("Something is really wrong.");
throw up;  // ha ha

// Catch an exception
try
  y = 0;
  x = 10 / y;
}
catch (Exception ex) {   // Argument is optional, no "When" keyword 
  Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
}
finally {
  Microsoft.VisualBasic.Interaction.Beep();
}

VB.NET

Namespaces

C#

Namespace Harding.Compsci.Graphics 
  ...
End Namespace

' or

Namespace Harding
  Namespace Compsci
    Namespace Graphics 
      ...
    End Namespace
  End Namespace
End Namespace

Imports Harding.Compsci.Graphics

namespace Harding.Compsci.Graphics {
  ...
}

// or

namespace Harding {
  namespace Compsci {
    namespace Graphics {
      ...
    }
  }
}

using Harding.Compsci.Graphics;

VB.NET

Classes / Interfaces

C#

Access Modifiers
Public
Private
Friend
Protected
Protected Friend

Class Modifiers
MustInherit
NotInheritable

Method Modifiers
MustOverride
NotInheritable
Shared
Overridable

' All members are Shared
Module

' Partial classes
Partial Class Competition
  ...
End Class 

' Inheritance
Class FootballGame
  Inherits Competition
  ...
End Class 

' Interface definition
Interface IAlarmClock 
  ...
End Interface

// Extending an interface 
Interface IAlarmClock
  Inherits IClock
  ...
End Interface

// Interface implementation
Class WristWatch 
  Implements IAlarmClock, ITimer 
   ...
End Class 

Access Modifiers
public
private
internal
protected
protected internal

Class Modifiers
abstract
sealed
static

Method Modifiers
abstract
sealed
static
virtual

No Module equivalent - just use static class

// Partial classes
partial class Competition {
  ...
}

// Inheritance
class FootballGame : Competition {
  ...
}

  • // Interface definition*
    interface IAlarmClock {
      ...
    }

// Extending an interface 
interface IAlarmClock : IClock {
  ...
}

  • // Interface implementation*
    class WristWatch : IAlarmClock, ITimer {
       ...
    }

VB.NET

Constructors / Destructors

C#

Class SuperHero
  Private powerLevel As Integer

  Public Sub New()
    powerLevel = 0
  End Sub

  Public Sub New(ByVal powerLevel As Integer)
    Me.powerLevel = powerLevel
  End Sub

  Shared Sub New()
    ' Shared constructor invoked before 1st instance is created
  End Sub

  Protected Overrides Sub Finalize() 
   ' Destructor to free unmanaged resources
    MyBase.Finalize()
  End Sub
End Class

class SuperHero {
  private int powerLevel;

  public SuperHero() {
     powerLevel = 0;
  }

  public SuperHero(int powerLevel) {
    this.powerLevel = powerLevel; 
  }

  static SuperHero() {
    // Static constructor invoked before 1st instance is created
  }

  ~SuperHero() {
    // Destructor implicitly creates a Finalize method
  }
}

VB.NET

Using Objects

C#

Dim hero As SuperHero = New SuperHero
' or
Dim hero As New SuperHero

With hero
  .Name = "SpamMan"
  .PowerLevel = 3
End With

hero.Defend("Laura Jones")
hero.Rest()     ' Calling Shared method
' or
SuperHero.Rest()

Dim hero2 As SuperHero = hero  ' Both reference the same object
hero2.Name = "WormWoman"
Console.WriteLine(hero.Name)   ' Prints WormWoman

hero = Nothing    ' Free the object

If hero Is Nothing Then _
  hero = New SuperHero

Dim obj As Object = New SuperHero
If TypeOf obj Is SuperHero Then _
  Console.WriteLine("Is a SuperHero object.")

' Mark object for quick disposal
Using reader As StreamReader = File.OpenText("test.txt")
  Dim line As String = reader.ReadLine()
  While Not line Is Nothing
    Console.WriteLine(line)
    line = reader.ReadLine()
  End While
End Using

SuperHero hero = new SuperHero();

// No "With" construct
hero.Name = "SpamMan";
hero.PowerLevel = 3;

hero.Defend("Laura Jones");
SuperHero.Rest();   // Calling static method

SuperHero hero2 = hero;   // Both reference the same object
hero2.Name = "WormWoman";
Console.WriteLine(hero.Name);   // Prints WormWoman

hero = null ;   // Free the object

if (hero == null)
  hero = new SuperHero();

Object obj = new SuperHero(); 
if (obj is SuperHero)
  Console.WriteLine("Is a SuperHero object.");

// Mark object for quick disposal
using (StreamReader reader = File.OpenText("test.txt")) {
  string line;
  while ((line = reader.ReadLine()) != null)
    Console.WriteLine(line);
}

VB.NET

Structs

C#

Structure StudentRecord
  Public name As String
  Public gpa As Single

  Public Sub New(ByVal name As String, ByVal gpa As Single)
    Me.name = name
    Me.gpa = gpa
  End Sub
End Structure

Dim stu As StudentRecord = New StudentRecord("Bob", 3.5)
Dim stu2 As StudentRecord = stu  

stu2.name = "Sue"
Console.WriteLine(stu.name)    ' Prints Bob
Console.WriteLine(stu2.name)  ' Prints Sue

struct StudentRecord {
  public string name;
  public float gpa;

  public StudentRecord(string name, float gpa) {
    this.name = name;
    this.gpa = gpa;
  }
}

StudentRecord stu = new StudentRecord("Bob", 3.5f);
StudentRecord stu2 = stu;  

stu2.name = "Sue";
Console.WriteLine(stu.name);    // Prints Bob
Console.WriteLine(stu2.name);   // Prints Sue

VB.NET

Properties

C#

' Auto-implemented properties are new to VB10
Public Property Name As String
Public Property Size As Integer = -1     ' Default value, Get and Set both Public

' Traditional property implementation
Private mName As String
Public Property Name() As String
    Get
        Return mName
    End Get
    Set(ByVal value As String)
        mName = value
    End Set
End Property

' Read-only property
Private mPowerLevel As Integer
Public ReadOnly Property PowerLevel() As Integer
    Get
        Return mPowerLevel
    End Get
End Property

' Write-only property
Private mHeight As Double
Public WriteOnly Property Height() As Double
    Set(ByVal value As Double)
        mHeight = If(value < 0, mHeight = 0, mHeight = value)
    End Set
End Property

// Auto-implemented properties
public string Name { get; set; }
public int Size { get; protected set; }     // Set default value in constructor

// Traditional property implementation
private string name;
public string Name {
  get {
    return name;
  }
  set {
    name = value;
  }
}

// Read-only property
private int powerLevel;
public int PowerLevel {
  get {
    return powerLevel;
  }
}

// Write-only property
private double height;
public double Height {
  set {
    height = value < 0 ? 0 : value;
  }
}

VB.NET

Delegates / Events

C#

Delegate Sub MsgArrivedEventHandler(ByVal message As String)

Event MsgArrivedEvent As MsgArrivedEventHandler

' or to define an event which declares a delegate implicitly
Event MsgArrivedEvent(ByVal message As String)

AddHandler MsgArrivedEvent, AddressOf My_MsgArrivedCallback
' Won't throw an exception if obj is Nothing
**
RaiseEvent MsgArrivedEvent("Test message") RemoveHandler MsgArrivedEvent, AddressOf** My_MsgArrivedCallback

Imports System.Windows.Forms

Dim WithEvents MyButton As Button   ' WithEvents can't be used on local variable
MyButton = New Button

Private Sub MyButton_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, _
  ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles MyButton.Click
  MessageBox.Show(Me, "Button was clicked", "Info", _
    MessageBoxButtons.OK, MessageBoxIcon.Information)
End Sub

delegate void MsgArrivedEventHandler(string message);

event MsgArrivedEventHandler MsgArrivedEvent;

// Delegates must be used with events in C#

MsgArrivedEvent = new MsgArrivedEventHandler(My_MsgArrivedEventCallback);
MsgArrivedEvent("Test message");    // Throws exception if obj is null
MsgArrivedEvent -= new MsgArrivedEventHandler(My_MsgArrivedEventCallback);

using System.Windows.Forms;

Button MyButton = new Button(); 
MyButton.Click = new System.EventHandler(MyButton_Click);

private void MyButton_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e) {
  MessageBox.Show(this, "Button was clicked", "Info",
    MessageBoxButtons.OK, MessageBoxIcon.Information);
}

VB.NET

Generics

C#

' Enforce accepted data type at compile-time
Dim numbers As New List(Of Integer)
numbers.Add(2)
numbers.Add(4)
DisplayList(Of Integer)(numbers)

' Subroutine can display any type of List
Sub DisplayList(Of T)(ByVal list As List(Of T))
    For Each item As T In list
        Console.WriteLine(item)
    Next
End Sub

' Class works on any data type
Class SillyList(Of T)
    Private list(10) As T
    Private rand As New Random

    Public Sub Add(ByVal item As T)
        list(rand.Next(10)) = item
    End Sub

    Public Function GetItem() As T
        Return list(rand.Next(10))
    End Function
End Class

' Limit T to only types that implement IComparable
Function Maximum(Of T As IComparable)(ByVal ParamArray items As T()) As T
    Dim max As T = items(0)
    For Each item As T In items
        If item.CompareTo(max) > 0 Then max = item
    Next
    Return max
End Function

// Enforce accepted data type at compile-time
List<int> numbers = new List<int>();
numbers.Add(2);
numbers.Add(4);
DisplayList<int>(numbers);

// Function can display any type of List
void DisplayList<T>(List<T> list) {
    foreach (T item in list)
        Console.WriteLine(item);
}

// Class works on any data type
class SillyList<T> {
    private T[] list = new T[10];
    private Random rand = new Random();

    public void Add(T item) {
        list[rand.Next(10)] = item;
    }

    public T GetItem() {
        return list[rand.Next(10)];
    }
}

// Limit T to only types that implement IComparable
T Maximum<T>(params T[] items) where T : IComparable<T> {
    T max = items[0];
    foreach (T item in items)
        if (item.CompareTo(max) > 0)
            max = item;
    return max;
}

VB.NET

LINQ

C#

Dim nums() As Integer = {5, 8, 2, 1, 6}

' Get all numbers in the array above 4
Dim results = From value In nums
                  Where value > 4
                  Select value

Console.WriteLine(results.Count())     ' 3
Console.WriteLine(results.First())     ' 5
Console.WriteLine(results.Last())     ' 6
Console.WriteLine(results.Average())     ' 6.33333

' Displays 5 8 6
For Each n As Integer In results
    Console.Write(n & " ")
Next

results = results.Intersect({5, 6, 7})     ' 5 6
results = results.Concat({5, 1, 5})     ' 5 6 5 1 5
results = results.Distinct()     ' 5 6 1

Dim Students() As Student = {
    New Student With {.Name = "Bob", .GPA = 3.5},
    New Student With {.Name = "Sue", .GPA = 4.0},
    New Student With {.Name = "Joe", .GPA = 1.9}
}

' Get an ordered list of all students by GPA with GPA >= 3.0
Dim goodStudents = From s In Students
            Where s.GPA >= 3.0
            Order By s.GPA Descending
            Select s

Console.WriteLine(goodStudents.First.Name)     ' Sue

int[] nums = { 5, 8, 2, 1, 6 };

// Get all numbers in the array above 4
var results = from value in nums
                where value > 4
                select value;

Console.WriteLine(results.Count());     // 3
Console.WriteLine(results.First());     // 5
Console.WriteLine(results.Last());     // 6
Console.WriteLine(results.Average());     // 6.33333

// Displays 5 8 6
foreach (int n in results)
    Console.Write(n " ");

results = results.Intersect(new[] {5, 6, 7});     // 5 6
results = results.Concat(new[] {5, 1, 5});     // 5 6 5 1 5
results = results.Distinct();     // 5 6 1

Student[] Students = {
    new Student{ Name = "Bob", GPA = 3.5 },
    new Student{ Name = "Sue", GPA = 4.0 },
    new Student{ Name = "Joe", GPA = 1.9 }
};

// Get an ordered list of all students by GPA with GPA >= 3.0
var goodStudents = from s in Students
            where s.GPA >= 3.0
            orderby s.GPA descending
            select s;

Console.WriteLine(goodStudents.First().Name);     // Sue

VB.NET

Console I/O

C#

Console.Write("What's your name? ")
Dim name As String = Console.ReadLine()
Console.Write("How old are you? ")
Dim age As Integer = Val(Console.ReadLine())
Console.WriteLine("{0} is {1} years old.", name, age) 
' or
Console.WriteLine(name & " is " & age & " years old.")

Dim c As Integer
c = Console.Read()    ' Read single char
Console.WriteLine(c)   ' Prints 65 if user enters "A"

Console.Write("What's your name? ");
string name = Console.ReadLine();
Console.Write("How old are you? ");
int age = Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine());
Console.WriteLine("{0} is {1} years old.", name, age);
// or
Console.WriteLine(name " is " age " years old.");

int c = Console.Read();  // Read single char
Console.WriteLine(c);    // Prints 65 if user enters "A"

VB.NET

File I/O

C#

Imports System.IO

' Write out to text file
Dim writer As StreamWriter = File.CreateText("c:myfile.txt")
writer.WriteLine("Out to file.")
writer.Close()

' Read all lines from text file
Dim reader As StreamReader = File.OpenText("c:myfile.txt")
Dim line As String = reader.ReadLine()
While Not line Is Nothing
  Console.WriteLine(line)
  line = reader.ReadLine()
End While
reader.Close()

' Write out to binary file
Dim str As String = "Text data"
Dim num As Integer = 123
Dim binWriter As New BinaryWriter(File.OpenWrite("c:myfile.dat")) 
binWriter.Write(str) 
binWriter.Write(num) 
binWriter.Close()

' Read from binary file
Dim binReader As New BinaryReader(File.OpenRead("c:myfile.dat"))
str = binReader.ReadString()
num = binReader.ReadInt32()
binReader.Close()

using System.IO;

// Write out to text file
StreamWriter writer = File.CreateText("c:\myfile.txt");
writer.WriteLine("Out to file.");
writer.Close();

// Read all lines from text file
StreamReader reader = File.OpenText("c:\myfile.txt");
string line = reader.ReadLine();
while (line != null) {
  Console.WriteLine(line);
  line = reader.ReadLine();
}
reader.Close();

// Write out to binary file
string str = "Text data";
int num = 123;
BinaryWriter binWriter = new BinaryWriter(File.OpenWrite("c:\myfile.dat"));
binWriter.Write(str);
binWriter.Write(num);
binWriter.Close();

// Read from binary file
BinaryReader binReader = new BinaryReader(File.OpenRead("c:\myfile.dat"));
str = binReader.ReadString();
num = binReader.ReadInt32();
binReader.Close();

 

 

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